External factors such as insects or wind are necessary for pollen grains to transfer themselves from one plant or flower to another, enabling pollination and the reproduction of plant life. While bees are commonly recognized for their crucial role in pollination, many overlook the contribution of birds in this process. Ornithophily refers to pollination carried out by birds, particularly nectar-eating birds like hummingbirds, honey-eaters, and sunbirds. As these birds feed on nectar, they unintentionally collect pollen on their beaks, feathers, and backs, which is then transferred to the next flower they visit, aiding in pollination. However, while birds do play a significant part in pollination, their contribution to commercially grown crop production is considered incidental or minor compared to that of bees. For more information on how birds compare to bees in pollination, read on.
Hummingbirds are essential for ornithophily, which is the pollination of flowers by birds. Pollination happens when the pollen grains or seeds from the male part of a flower (the stamen) are transferred to the female reproductive organs of another flower called the pistil. This transfer leads to fertilization and the reproduction of more plants. Birds that feed on flowers, nectar, berries, and those that perch on flowering plants or blossom in trees help the pollination process. When birds interact with flowers, pollen grains stick to their beak, feathers, and feet, and they carry these grains to the next plant they visit, leading to pollination. Nectar-feeding birds are particularly crucial in pollinating thousands of wildflowers. They drink nectar from long, tubular flowers with their needle-like bills and transfer pollen grains to every flower they feed from. Hummingbirds are interested in red-petaled flowers, making them attractive to these birds.
Nectar-consuming birds are prominent pollinators, particularly hummingbirds, who flit from one flower to another to satiate their need for the sugary solution that fuels their rapid metabolism. Honey-eaters and sunbirds also play a role in pollination by visiting flowers for nectar and inadvertently transferring pollen while feeding. Some non-nectar-eating bird species, such as orioles, finches, and woodpeckers, occasionally consume nectar as well. However, nearly 2,000 bird species are considered pollinators in some capacity, regardless of whether they consume nectar or not. Rainforest parrots, like lorikeets, feed on fresh flowers and inadvertently transfer pollen grains when they seek out new sources of food. Birds that consume vegetable crops can also aid in pollination by spreading the pollen produced by their flowers from plant to plant. Additionally, birds that eat insects off of flowers play an important role in pollination by brushing against blooms while in pursuit of their prey and moving small pollen particles between flowers in the process.
Sunbirds also play a crucial role in the pollination process, as they aid in the fertilization of various plant species. Although bees are considered the top pollinators worldwide, responsible for 80% of crop pollination, birds can’t be underestimated. While they don’t pollinate commercially grown crops, they are essential to the survival and propagation of many plant species. Hummingbirds, for instance, are responsible for pollinating around 8,000 plants in the Americas alone. Similarly, birds from approximately 60 wildflower families are instrumental in the pollination of thousands of plants. Therefore, it’s safe to say that birds, including sunbirds, play an important role in maintaining ecological balance by aiding in pollination.
The support of bees in the pollination process for various plants that are essential to the survival of numerous bird species cannot be ignored. Birds that consume fruits and berries directly benefit from the successful pollination facilitated by bees travelling between the flowers of fruit trees and shrubs.
If bees were to disappear, the existence of countless plant species and the diversity of landscapes worldwide would undergo a severe decline. This would ultimately have adverse effects on the future of birds, leading to decreased sources of food and degraded habitats for them to inhabit and forage.
Bees make up a significant portion of some birds’ diets, such as bee-eaters, thrushes, and swifts. Woodpeckers may also target beehives if the opportunity presents itself, while bee larvae play a crucial role in the honey buzzard’s diet.
It should come as no surprise that Bee-Eaters have bees as part of their diets. But did you know that birds play a significant role in pollination and the dispersal of seeds? Berry-eating birds, in particular, are responsible for spreading seeds far and wide. When these birds consume berries and fruit, any seeds they ingest are eventually excreted onto the ground. This gives the seeds an opportunity to grow into plants. What’s fascinating is that migratory birds can transport seeds in their digestive system over long distances. Studies have shown that seeds can be spread over 300 km from their original location. One of the most impressive seed dispersers is the cassowary, known for consuming plants that other animals avoid, including poisonous plants and fruits with large seeds. As a result, cassowaries play a crucial role in maintaining diversity and species renewal in their rainforest habitats.